A summary of cultural dimensions identified by some of the greats in national culture research and training. I’ve mostly put this summary here for myself, as occasionally I find it easy to get them mixed up, and it’s nice to have links to Wikipedia or similar references to facilitate understanding of the various cultural dimensions. In some cases I have linked to updated versions of publications. They are for sale in Amazon, among other vendors.
What is a cultural dimension? Wikipedia describes it as a framework for cross-cultural communication based on Hofstede’s work. “It describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.”
I will me making updates to this page from time to time, so it may well be worth bookmarking and revisiting. Happy to argue whether this is a complete or accurate list (or not) Please leave any comments below, and provide any links to papers, etc so that I can see the evidence.
|Cultural Dimensions||Hofstede (1980)||Hofstede et al (2010)||Triandis (1995)||GLOBE (House et al 2004)||Trompenaars (1997)||Schwartz (1990)|
|Power Distance||Called Hierarchy|
|Individualism vs Collectivism||See Collectivism I & II||Called Individualism and
|Masculinity vs Femininity||(2)||See Achievement vs. ascription|
|Long-term vs short-term orientation||See future orientation|
|Collectivism I: Institutional collectivism|
|Collectivism II: In-group collectivism|
|Universalism & Particularism|
|Neutral vs. emotional (affinity vs neutrality?)|
|Specific vs. diffuse|
|Achievement vs. ascription|
|Sequential vs. synchronic (time orientation)|
|Relation to nature|
(1) Explores individualism-collectivism dimension in greater depth through seven values. See ticked items in Schwartz column.
(2) See Masculine: performance orientation, assertiveness orientation, Feminine: Humane orientation and Gender egalitarianism.
Disclaimer: I make commission from Amazon links above.
Update: There is some interesting information about critiques of Hofstede’s work here in his Wikipedia entry. In my opinion, it is still one of the most cited works on Google Scholar – with analysis both for and against – and provides a starting point for discussion and understanding.